Count the number of inversions in an array. An inversion is two items that are
out of order. For instance, in the array: `[1][3][2]`

the numbers 3 and 2
represent an inversion.

This algorithm is essentially the same as merge sort with the exception that it keeps track of inversions while sorting.

## Applications

The typical use of such algorithms is comparing preferences between users. The number of inversions between user A’s ranking of products and users B’s ranking of products represents how similar their affinities are.

## Asymptotic Complexity

$O(n \log n)$

## Pseudo Code

```
A = input array
inversions = 0
if length of A is 1
return 0
count:
A1 = first half of A
A2 = second half of A
inversions += recursively count\sort A1
inversions += recursively count\sort A2
i = 1
j = 1
for k = 1 to n
if A1[i] < A2[j]
A[k] = A1[i]
i++
else
A[k] = A2[j]
j++
inversions += # of items remaining in A1
return inversions
```

## Source Code

Relevant Files:

Click here for build and run instructions